Augmented Reality for Kidney Biopsy
We are developing an augmented reality (AR) system for kidney biopsy guidance. Kidney biopsies are currently performed using preoperative imaging to identify the lesion of interest and intraoperative imaging used to guide the biopsy needle to the tissue of interest. Often, these are not the same modalities forcing the physician to perform a mental cross-modality fusion of the preoperative and intraoperative scans. This limits the accuracy and reproducibility of the biopsy procedure. In this study, we are developing an augmented reality system to display holographic representations of lesions superimposed on a phantom. This system allows the integration of preoperative CT scans with intraoperative ultrasound scans to better determine the lesion’s real-time location. To aid lesion targeting, holographic lesion representations are displayed in its real-world location based on the segmentation label provided on the preoperative CT scans. The lesion hologram is then transformed based on the intraoperative deformation and movement observed through ultrasound imaging, removing the need for the surgeon to register the images mentally. An automated deformable registration algorithm has been developed to increase the accuracy of the holographic lesion locations. A magnetic tracking system has been developed to provide guidance for the biopsy procedure. A magnetic tracker attached to the biopsy needle allows the program to predict the needle trajectories that would accurately target the lesion, thereby offering potential improvements in diagnostic specificity. Our augmented reality guided biopsy technique achieved a targeting accuracy of 2.9 ± 1.5 mm in a renal phantom study. The goal of this project is to translate the technology to the clinical settings and improve the detection and diagnosis of renal diseases in human patients.